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Ethiopia 2016 Crime & Safety Report

Africa > Ethiopia; Africa > Ethiopia > Addis Ababa

Overall Crime and Safety Situation

The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia is a developing country in East Africa. It is comprised of nine regional states and two city administrations (Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa). The capital is Addis Ababa. Tourism facilities can be found in the most populous regions of Ethiopia, but infrastructure is basic. The ruling Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front Party maintains strong control of the government and economy. Despite recent years of economic growth, the country remains vulnerable to external economic shocks and recurring drought.

Post Crime Rating: High

Crime Threats

Overall, crime is generally opportunistic and non-violent/non-confrontational. Foreigners (referred to locally as “ferengis”) can be targeted for crimes, as it assumed that they possess valuables and are more susceptible to becoming victims. Pedestrians are targeted most for crimes such as pickpocketing, snatch-and-run thefts (including from occupied vehicles), and other petty crimes. These are generally not planned attacks and are against foreigners unaware of their surroundings. Petty crimes (pickpocketing, purse snatching, harassment by gangs of youths) occur randomly in Addis Ababa. These incidents occur anytime and are more common in areas where there are large numbers of pedestrians. Physical violence in these instances is uncommon but does happen on occasion.

Residential burglaries in areas populated by Embassy personnel and expatriates are not common but do occur.

There are reported instances of Western females being victims of sexual assault and/or groping by local males. These reports tend to be made by women in rural towns/villages but can occur anywhere.

Cybersecurity Issues

Cybercrime is not a major concern. Use of computers by the local population is low, and the level of sophistication with computers is also low.

Other Areas of Concern

Travelers should exercise caution in crowded areas, especially in the large, open-air market called Mercato in Addis Ababa.

U.S. citizens are advised that, due to serious safety and security concerns, U.S. government personnel and their families are restricted from traveling to the following areas (see map):
 
Ethiopia/Eritrea Border (northern Ethiopia) depicted in red: Ethiopia and Eritrea signed a peace agreement in December 2000 that ended their border war. The border remains disputed and is a militarized zone. The possibility of armed conflict between Ethiopian and Eritrean forces exists. U.S. government personnel are restricted from travel north of the Shire (Inda Silassie)-Axum-Adigrat road in the Tigray region. Personnel are also restricted from travel north of the road from Dessie through Semera to the Galafi border crossing with Djibouti, including the Danakil Depression and the Erta Ale volcano. 
In January 2012, a group of foreign tourists was attacked near the Erta Ale volcano in the Afar region near the Eritrean border (approximately 100 miles southeast of Adigrat in the Danakil Depression). The attack resulted in five deaths, three wounded, and four people kidnapped. The victims were European and Ethiopian citizens. Two kidnapped Europeans were released. On February 15, 2012, Ethiopia, which blamed Eritrea for the attack, retaliated by striking Eritrean military camps where the attackers were allegedly trained. This episode illustrates the continuing volatility of the border area.

Somali Region (eastern Ethiopia) depicted in blue: Travel to Somali regional state is restricted for U.S. government employees, although essential travel is permitted on a case-by-case basis. Since the mid-1990s, members of the Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF) have conducted attacks on civilian targets in parts of the Somali regional state, particularly in predominantly Ogadeni zones. Expatriates have been killed in these attacks. In 2010, the government initiated peace talks with the ONLF that are ongoing. Despite these talks, incidents of violence continue. Throughout 2013, skirmishes between the ONLF and regional government security forces took place. Some of these incidents involved local civilians. Al-Shabaab maintains a presence in Somali towns near the Ethiopian border, presenting a risk of cross-border attacks targeting foreigners.

Gambella/Benishangul-Gumuz Regions (western Ethiopia) depicted in green: Sporadic inter-ethnic clashes are a concern throughout the Gambella region. While the security situation in Gambella town is generally calm, the rest of the region remains unpredictable. Intensified conflict between Sudan and the Republic of South Sudan has significantly increased refugee flows into western Ethiopia. Ethiopian refugee camps are strictly controlled. All access should be preapproved by the UNHCR and, most importantly, by the host government. Journalists have been detained and deported for not possessing proper permission when attempting to access to refugee camps. Travel to the border areas in the Beneshangul Gumuz Region (Assosa) is restricted due to political sensitivity to major towns north of the area where the Great Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) is being constructed.

Ethiopian/Kenyan Border (southern Ethiopia) depicted in brown: Along the Kenyan border, banditry and incidents involving ethnic conflicts are common. Security around Moyale is unpredictable, and clashes between Ethiopian forces and the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) have been reported.

Transportation-Safety Situation

Road Safety and Road Conditions

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Ethiopia has the highest rate of traffic fatalities per vehicle in the world. Roads are poorly maintained, inadequately marked, and poorly lighted. Road travel after dark outside cities is dangerous and discouraged due to hazards posed by broken-down vehicles in the road, pedestrians, stray animals, and the possibility of armed robbery. Road lighting is inadequate at best and nonexistent outside of cities. Excessive speed, unpredictable local driving habits, pedestrians/livestock in the roadway, and the lack of adherence to basic safety standards for vehicles are daily hazards. Many vehicles are unlicensed, and many drivers lack basic driver training or insurance. Emergency services are limited or nonexistent in many parts of the country. Drivers should always carry spare tires, fuel, and tools on long trips, as there is no roadside assistance. U.S. government personnel must limit road travel outside towns or cities to daylight hours and travel in convoys, if possible, in case of breakdowns.

Be cautious when traveling on roads. In 2014, there were reports of highway robbery, including carjackings, by armed bandits outside urban areas in the Gambella region and improvised explosive devices deployed in Beneshangul. When driving, be wary of other motorists warning you of a mechanical problem or a flat tire. This may be a ruse by thieves to get you to stop. Be alert and aware of your surroundings to ensure that you are not being followed.

Always have your car keys ready as you approach your car and be on the lookout for individuals who are waiting close to your car, especially at Bole Airport. Move directly from your car to your destination. Check the front and rear seats of your vehicle before entering and lock your doors immediately after entry. Maintain awareness when entering and exiting your vehicle. While in a vehicle, keep your doors locked and the windows rolled up. Keep bags, purses, and valuables out of sight to prevent theft. Do not carry unnecessary items in your bag. Do not open your doors/windows to give money to beggars, which are prevalent in Addis Ababa. Do not allow others to control your movement. Always leave enough space between you and the car ahead so that you can take evasive action. It is unlawful to use a cell phone or other electronic communications device (even hands-free) while driving, and the use of seat belts is required. Be sure to carry a valid Ethiopian driver’s license, proof of comprehensive local insurance coverage, and your U.S. passport or Ethiopian Identification card. Try to park in guarded, illuminated areas at night and do not park far from your destination.

If you are involved in a vehicular accident, a large crowd may gather and could become hostile and aggressive. If you fear for your safety, go to the nearest police station. Special units of the traffic police investigate traffic accidents. Normal investigative procedures require the police to conduct on on-scene investigation, after which all involved parties go to the Traffic Department for a vehicle inspection and to provide details about the accident for a final report. If possible, obtain the names and contact information of all persons involved in the accident and make a note of the extent of any injuries; photograph vehicular damage; note any registration information (tag number) of other vehicle(s) involved; and obtain the other driver’s permit data. Give similar information or registration/permit data to the other driver and to the police upon request.

Public Transportation Conditions

Public transport is unregulated and unsafe; if travelers do use public transport, they should use taxis, not minibuses, or large buses and ensure they are the only passengers in the vehicle. U.S. citizens should avoid, if possible, using public transportation and transportation hubs. A light rail system began operations in the capital city in late 2015; there have been no safety or criminal incidents reported. Beware of unattended baggage or packages left in any location, including in mini-buses and taxis.

Aviation/Airport Conditions

The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the government’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Ethiopia’s air carrier operations. Further information may be found on the FAA’s safety assessment page.

Bole Airport is a busy terminal that serves as a hub for flights in East Africa. Airport services may be slow or not up to Western standards, but there are no concerns for safety or scams. The airport borders the southern edge of the city, and most destinations are a short drive by taxi, which are inside the terminals. Travelers are recommended to have Ethiopian currency for taxi fare; fares are typically negotiated in advance with the taxi driver. Ethiopian Federal Police are posted throughout the airport and parking lot areas and can assist in an emergency. Watch out for unofficial porters who approach your vehicle with the intent to steal items during loading or unloading.

Other Travel Conditions

While travel during daylight hours on both paved and unpaved roads is generally considered safe, land mines and other anti-personnel devices can be encountered on isolated dirt roads, especially along the Eritrean border. Before undertaking any off-road travel, inquire with local authorities to ensure that the area has been cleared of mines.

There are a number of tour organizations that arrange travel throughout the country, with varying degrees of service. None are deemed off-limits.

Terrorism Threat

Post Terrorism Rating: High

Local, Regional, and International Terrorism Threats/Concerns

A number of al-Shabaab operatives and other extremists are believed to be operating in/around the Horn of Africa. Since the July 11, 2010, terrorist bombings in Kampala, Uganda, for which the Somalia-based, U.S.-designated Foreign Terrorist Organization al-Shabaab claimed responsibility, there have been increased threats against public areas across East Africa. On October 13, 2013, a bomb exploded in a residential neighborhood of Addis Ababa. The bomb detonated prematurely and killed two individuals believed to be al-Shabaab members who had intended to attack Ethiopian soccer fans attending a World Cup pre-qualifying match. The government released a November 2013 warning that al-Shabaab intended to carry out attacks in Addis Ababa and other areas of the country.

The call for self-radicalization, whether disseminated on extremist forums, or via the broader approach via social media continue to be a global concern. It is difficult to determine which message will inspire a violent extremist.

Anti-American/Anti-Western Sentiment 

Most Ethiopians regard Americans and Westerners in a positive manner and are friendly to foreigners. A recent survey indicated that Ethiopia is among the top three countries with the highest pro-U.S. sentiment.

Political, Economic, Religious, and Ethnic Violence

Post Political Violence Rating: Medium

Civil Unrest

U.S. citizens are advised to consider the risk of attending or being near large public gatherings or those venues where Westerners gather on a routine or predictable basis. Such gatherings or venues can provide vulnerable targets for extremist or terrorist groups. Demonstrations are held on occasion that are often large and may take place in or near the city center. Some demonstrations have resulted in arrests of protestors, and some have had reported violence and deaths of both activists and law enforcement officers. Demonstrations must be approved in advance by the government and are typically well covered by local police. Instances of violence have been reported; foreigners are advised to avoid demonstrations and large gatherings.

Religious/Ethnic Violence

Ethiopia is a multi-ethnic country with a diversity of religions, with Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, Sunni Muslim, and Christian Evangelical/Pentecostal comprising the main religious groups. The government occasionally cracks down on demonstrations conducted by Muslim organizations. Violence between religious groups is not common.

Since late November, widespread, ongoing demonstrations have been taking place across towns in Ethiopia’s Oromia region. Some of these protests have turned violent and resulted in casualties, and some Western companies have suspended operations in Oromia altogether. Road travel has also been disrupted in certain areas, affecting some Western private sector organizations with operations there. For further information, OSAC members should refer to OSAC reporting (https://www.osac.gov/Pages/ContentReportDetails.aspx?cid=18795).

Post-specific Concerns 

Environmental Hazards

Ethiopia is a mountainous country, and the high altitude may cause health problems even for healthy persons. Addis Ababa is the fifth highest capital city in the world at an altitude of 8,300 feet. Travelers may experience shortness of breath, fatigue, nausea, headaches, and an inability to sleep. Individuals with respiratory (including asthma), high blood pressure, or heart conditions should consult with a health care professional before traveling. For more information, please refer to OSAC reporting (https://www.osac.gov/Pages/ContentReportDetails.aspx?cid=18075).

Ethiopia is located in the Rift Valley, and there is a risk of earthquakes, although none have occurred recently. Buildings are not built to earthquake codes and may collapse due to strong tremors. General information about natural disaster preparedness is available from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

Critical Infrastructure Concerns

There are no known prevailing issues with industrial accidents; however, Ethiopia is not considered to conform to Western standards for workplace security. A primary example is observed with construction throughout Addis Ababa where scaffolding is made from local timber with few safety features on construction sites.

Communications (cell phones, Internet) are controlled by the government, and both systems go down frequently. Telecoms are unreliable, and there a “dead spots” for cell phone coverage. Blackberry devices do not work in Ethiopia, but 3G and 4G (capital city) are being deployed.

Ethiopia is primarily a cash economy. U.S. dollars and some of the more popular traveler's checks can be changed at the airport and at some banks. ATMs are readily available throughout the city, and major hotels and commercial centers accept major international credit/debit cards, although connectivity problems sometimes limit their availability. While credit cards are gaining acceptance with some hotels, travel agencies, and merchants, it is best to check ahead and ensure you have sufficient cash reserves. Exchange receipts are required to convert unused Ethiopian currency back to the original foreign currency. Penalties for exchanging money on the black market range from fines to imprisonment. Some hotels and car rental companies, particularly in Addis Ababa, may require foreigners to pay in foreign currency or show a receipt for the source of foreign exchange if paying in local currency. Resident and non-resident travelers can carry up to US$3,000 in foreign currency in and out of Ethiopia with proper evidence of its source. Employees of embassies and foreign organizations or individuals entering into the country through embassies or foreign organizations on temporary employment (to attend seminars, to give training) may leave the country carrying more than US$3,000 cash only when they can produce evidence that they were paid directly from a bank. Residents may carry foreign currency upon departure but only by producing evidence that the currency was purchased from a bank or by producing a customs declaration not more than 45 days after it was issued. Travelers can only carry up to 200 Ethiopian Birr out of the country.

Economic Espionage/Intellectual Property Thefts

There is an abundance of pirated merchandise for sale, readily available from street vendors, that is illegal to purchase under U.S. law.

Privacy Concerns

The significant construction boom of high-rise buildings in Addis Ababa has led to an increase in privacy concerns for residents. Lack of zoning laws has resulted in tall buildings being constructed in residential areas, which inhibits privacy.

Personnel-Background Concerns

Following the failed October 2013 bombing attempt in Addis Ababa, the U.S. Embassy received reports that ALL individuals of Somali origin, including naturalized American citizens, were being stopped for questioning when entering/exiting Ethiopia. The U.S. Embassy has been made aware that this practice is not isolated to just ports of entry. Individuals of Somali origin, regardless of citizenship, may be stopped, arrested, and detained for an extended period with no charges. Individuals of Somali origin are advised to prepare for this contingency and are recommended to carry copies of all important documents and the contact information for the U.S. Embassy. As an American citizen, you have the right to request that the U.S. Embassy be notified if you are detained.

Homosexuality is considered a crime and is a prosecutable offense.

Ethiopia does not recognize dual nationality. The government has stated that Ethiopian-U.S. citizens, in almost all cases, be given the same opportunity to invest in Ethiopia as Ethiopians. Several years ago, the government arrested people of Eritrean origin who initially failed to disclose their U.S. citizenship. However, this has not occurred in recent years. Ethiopian officials have stated that Eritrean-U.S. citizens will be treated as U.S. citizens and not be subject to arrest simply because of their ties to Eritrea. However, Eritrean-U.S. citizens are not permitted to obtain tourist visas upon arrival at the airport.

Kidnapping Threat

Travelers should be cautious when traveling in/along Ethiopia’s border with Somalia, where there is an ongoing kidnapping threat to foreigners by al-Shabbab.

Criminal violence and political violence in Addis Ababa and in southwestern and southeastern Ethiopia has resulted in numerous injuries and deaths. In January, 2012, five European tourists were killed, and four were kidnapped in an apparent terrorist attack/kidnapping plot in the Danakil Depression area (near the border with Eritrea). A kidnapping threat against Westerners has been active in the Dolo Odo area of the Somali Region in since 2013.

Police Response

While you are traveling in another country, you are subject to its laws even if you are a U.S. citizen. There are also some things that might be legal in the country you visit but are still illegal in the U.S, and you can be prosecuted under U.S. law. If you break local laws in your host country, your U.S. passport will not help you avoid arrest or prosecution. It is very important to know what is legal versus illegal. For example, Ethiopian law strictly prohibits the photographing of military installations, police/military personnel, industrial facilities, government buildings, and infrastructure (roads, bridges, dams, airfields, etc.). Such sites are rarely marked clearly. Travel guides, police, and Ethiopian officials can advise if a particular site may be photographed. Photographing prohibited sites may result in the confiscation of film and camera and arrest. For more information, please review OSAC’s Reporting (https://www.osac.gov/Pages/ContentReportDetails.aspx?cid=17303). 

How to Handle Incidents of Police Detention or Harassment

The government rarely informs the U.S. Embassy of arrested or detained U.S. citizens, even those detained at the airport by immigration or customs authorities: Ethiopia has not signed the UCCR. In some instances, U.S. citizens have been detained for weeks or even months without Embassy notification. If you are arrested or detained, you have the right to request that Ethiopian authorities alert the U.S. Embassy in accordance with the 1951 Treaty of Amity and Economic Relations between the U.S. and Ethiopia. If you are detained or arrested, you should use whatever means of communication available to alert the U.S. Embassy of your situation.

Crime Victim Assistance

The local emergency line is 991. If you or someone you know becomes the victim of a crime, you should contact the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If your passport is stolen, the Embassy can help you replace it. For violent crimes (assault, rape), we can help you find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends, and help them send you money. Although the investigation and prosecution of a crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney, if needed.

Police/Security Agencies

The Ethiopian Federal Police (EFP) is responsible for crimes that fall under the jurisdiction of federal courts, including any activities in violation of the Constitution that may endanger the constitutional order, public order, hooliganism, terrorism, trafficking in persons, and transferring of drugs. The EFP also maintains law and order in any region when there is a deteriorating security situation beyond the control of the concerned regional government and a request for intervention is made by the regional government or when disputes arise between two or more regional governments and the situation becomes dangerous for the security of the federal government. The EFP safeguards the security of borders, airports, railway lines/terminals, mining areas, and other vital institutions of the federal government. The EFP delegates, when necessary, its powers to regional Police Commissions; counterterrorism (CT) when investigations may lead to criminal arrests or charges within the court system.

Regional police handle local crime under their jurisdiction and provide officers for traffic control and immediate response to criminal incidents.

Medical Emergencies

Health facilities are very limited and are considered adequate only for stabilization and emergency care. Hospitals in Addis Ababa suffer from inadequate facilities, outdated equipment, and shortages of supplies/medications. All facilities require a cash deposit (dependent on the type of medical condition) before admittance and forbid medical release until all accrued charges are paid. There is a shortage of physicians and other qualified medical personnel. Emergency assistance is limited. Some hospitals have ambulance services, but these are limited, unreliable, and require on-scene cash payment. Psychiatric services and medications are very limited; there is only one psychiatric hospital, St. Yared, which requires payment prior to admission. 

Travelers must carry their own supplies of prescription drugs and preventive medicines and a doctor's note describing the medication. If the quantity of drugs exceeds that which would be expected for personal use, a permit from the Ministry of Health is required. For more information, please review OSAC’s Reporting (https://www.osac.gov/Pages/ContentReportDetails.aspx?cid=17386).

Contact Information for Recommended Hospitals/Clinics

Hospital Name

Telephone Number(s)

Physical Address

Nordic Hospital

251-92-910-5653

Bole sub city, Kebele 01, H.No-1244

Myungsung Christian Medical Center (AKA KOREAN Hospital)

Use for Trauma

251-11-629-5420

0913-81-8801

Gerji, Bole Sub-city, Kebele 11

 

Black Lion

251-11-515-6186

251-11-551-1211

Near Dilachin Monument/Churchill Road

Kadisco General Hospital

251-11-629-8902/03

Gerji, close to Sunshine apartment

St. Yared Hospital

251-11-645-4697/06

251-11-6454718

CMC road 800 meters from Megenagna Square.

Addis Ababa

International Cardiovascular Hospital

251-11-442-4680 /81

At Confusion Corner, off Ethio-China Road behind Nile Insurance

Addis Cardiac Hospital

251-11-618-0709

251-11-63-4720.

On right side the Ring Road from Bole to Saris in front of the customs office of Bole airport

Gojeb Dental Clinic

251-11-56-6521 / 6296

Adjacent to United Printing Press, Piazza

Pediatric clinic

(011) 551-4696 or (092) 178-7120 /(091) 280-3368

Olympia, Between La Parissian Cafe and Dreamliner Hotel

*Near Mulushewa Sega Bete



Recommended Air Ambulance Services

Local air ambulances are available from Abyssinian Flight Services. However, transport destinations are limited due to the distance restriction of the Cessna Caravan/Grand Caravans planes.
251 911 456685 / 84
251 911 206081
http://www.abyssinianflights.com

There are no international medevac companies based in Ethiopia. The closest planes are in Nairobi, Kenya, and would take 4-6 hours to get to Addis Ababa.

International SOS Assistance Inc.: The U.S. Embassy's primary contact, operates from Johannesburg, South Africa

AMREF “Flying Doctors of East Africa”: The closest company to Ethiopia and is based in Nairobi.

Recommended Insurance Posture

Serious illnesses/injuries often require travelers to be medically evacuated where adequate medical attention is available. Such “medevac” services are very expensive and are generally available only to travelers who either have travel insurance that covers medevac services or who are able to pay for the service in advance. The cost for medical evacuation may range from US$40,000 to $200,000.

Country-specific Vaccination and Health Guidance

Most bodies of water have been found to contain parasites. Schistosomiasis is caused by a parasitic worm that is spread by fresh water snails. The larval stage of the worm can burrow through your skin when in contact with contaminated fresh water. Avoid wading, swimming, bathing, or washing in, or drinking from bodies of fresh water such as canals, lakes, rivers, streams, or springs. Significant risk exists throughout the country, except in Lake Langono. Highest risk exists in the Omo River and surrounding areas.

Travelers should be aware that Ethiopia has a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in urban areas or along major trucking routes. The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions. Please verify this with the Ethiopian Embassy before you travel.

Ethiopia has had outbreaks of acute diarrhea, possible cholera, typhoid, and other bacterial contagion in the recent past, and the conditions for reoccurrence continue to exist in both urban and rural settings. Diarrheal illness is very common among travelers even in large cities and luxury accommodations. Travelers can diminish diarrhea risk through scrupulous washing of hands and use of hand sanitizers, especially before food preparation and eating. The greatest risk of traveler’s diarrhea is from contaminated food. Eat only food that is cooked and served hot; avoid food that has been sitting on a buffet. Eat raw fruits and vegetables only if you have washed them in clean water or peeled them. Drink only beverages from factory-sealed containers, and avoid ice (because it may have been made from unclean water). Talk to your doctor about short course antibiotics and loperamide to take with you in case of diarrhea while traveling. 

Ethiopia may also have periodic meningitis and polio outbreaks; however, Addis Ababa is considered polio free, and polio vaccinations are recommended. (see http://travel.state.gov/content/passports/english/go/Polio.html). Polio vaccination up to 1 year before travel is recommended. Meningococcal meninigitis epidemic activity occurs in most regions but is predominant in the western half of the country. Meningococcal Meninigitis Quadrivalent vaccine (A-C-Y-W135) is recommended for all travelers throughout the year, especially if prolonged contact with the local populace is anticipated and for all children and health care workers. All personnel assigned to the U.S. Embassy who have not been vaccinated for meningitis are advised against traveling to the affected areas during the peak meningitis transmission season. A non-IHR entry requirement for vaccination for all travelers has been registered with WHO. 

Ethiopian authorities have taken preventive measures against the spread of Ebola. There have been no confirmed cases of Ebola in Ethiopia. The government has established a hotline for inquiries pertaining to Ebola: 8335.

Even in urban areas, dogs may have rabies, and bites/scratches from dogs, bats, or other mammals should be immediately cleaned with soap and water and medical evaluation sought to determine if additional rabies immunization is warranted. Modern rabies vaccines are not readily available. Rabies immunization is recommended for all travelers staying for more than four weeks or who will have remote, rural travel or expect animal exposure.

Tuberculosis is an increasingly serious health concern.

Travelers are advised to update their shot records prior to travel and to be prepared to be screened for possible Ebola exposure at major points of entry. All routine U.S. immunizations (measles, mumps, rubella, chicken pox, Hepatitis A, tetanus) should also be up to date prior to arrival, all of which are more common in Ethiopia than in the U.S. It is also recommended that all travelers receive typhoid immunization, but it is not required for entry. For additional information on vaccines and health guidance, please visit the CDC at: http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/destinations/traveler/none/ethiopia?s_cid=ncezid-dgmq-travel-single-001.

OSAC Country Council Information

The Embassy has an OSAC Country Council. You can email the OSAC Country Council at osac-addis-ababa-@googlegroups.com for information or to request to join the mailing list. To reach the OSAC Africa team, email OSACAF@state.gov.

U.S. Embassy Location and Contact Information

Embassy Address and Hours of Operation

U.S. Embassy Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Entoto Road, P.O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Business hours: Mon-Thurs: 7:30 AM - 5:00 PM; Fri: 7:30 AM - 12:30 PM
Ethiopia is GMT +3

Embassy Contact Numbers

Switchboard: +251 11 130-6000
Fax: +251 11 124-2435 and +251 11 124-2419
Security Office: +251 11 130-7004 
Email: RSOAddisAbaba@state.gov
Marine Guard (24 Hours): +251 11 130-6911/2442 
Website: http://ethiopia.usembassy.gov/

Embassy Guidance

If you are going to reside in or visit Ethiopia, please take the time to tell our Embassy about your presence in-country. If you enroll, we can keep you up to date with important safety and security announcements. It will also help your friends and family get in touch with you in an emergency. To enroll your stay or visit, click the STEP (Smart Traveler Enrollment Program) button at http://travel.state.gov. Consular information is available at: http://www.travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1113.html.

Travelers should check with their sponsoring organization to ensure they have the correct documentation in place or risk penalties, including detention, fines, and deportation. The government’s regulations allow for similar penalties for those who assist others to reside illegally in Ethiopia.

To avoid confusion or delays, travelers are strongly advised to obtain a valid Ethiopian visa at an Ethiopian Embassy prior to arrival. You must obtain a visa prior to arrival if you plan to enter Ethiopia by any land port-of-entry. Ethiopian visas ARE NOT available at any land border. The Embassy of Ethiopia is located at 3506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008; tel: (202) 364-1200; fax (202) 587-0195; website: http://www.ethiopianembassy.org/. Ethiopian tourist visas (one month or three month, single entry) may be available to U.S. citizens upon arrival at Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa. The on-arrival visa process is not available at any other airports in Ethiopia. The visa fee is payable in U.S. dollars ($50 for one month, $70 for three months – both only single entry). Business visas of up to three months validity can also be obtained at Bole International Airport upon arrival but only if the traveler has a sponsoring organization in Ethiopia that has made prior arrangements for issuance through the Ethiopian Main Department for Immigration & Nationality office in Addis Ababa. In some cases, U.S. tourist and business travelers have not been permitted to receive visas at Bole International Airport or have been significantly delayed. A government policy prevents travelers born in Eritrea, regardless of their nationality, from receiving tourist visas at the airport. Visa extension fees are $100 for a first time one month extension, $150 for a second time 15 day extension, and $200 for a third time 10 day extension. Travelers whose entry visa expires before they depart must obtain a visa extension through the Main Immigration Office in Addis Ababa. There is a overstay penalty fee of $5/day from 1-15 days and $10/day after 15 days. Such travelers may also be required to pay a court fine of up to 4000 ETB (US$300) before being permitted to depart Ethiopia. Court fees must be paid in Ethiopian Birr. Travelers may be detained by immigration officials and/or required to appear in immigration court and are required to pay the penalty fee before they will be able to obtain an exit visa (US$20, payable in dollars).

Business travelers or employees of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) who intend to stay for 90+ days must apply for a residence card/work permit in order to work and live in Ethiopia. Travelers must apply for this permit within the first 30 days of their stay and must not work until this permit is approved.

Tips on How to Avoid Becoming a Victim

Situational Awareness Best Practices

Be aware of your surroundings. Travelers are strongly advised to review their personal safety and security posture, to remain vigilant, and to be cautious when frequenting prominent public places and landmarks. Avoid areas such as dark alleyways and overgrown brush where assailants can easily conceal themselves. Female travelers should be cautious if traveling alone. Avoid walking around alone after dark. Try to walk in groups. Beware of street children. Varying your travel times/routes is advised. Travelers should maintain a high level of vigilance when in public, especially when walking. Change direction or depart the area if you notice suspicious people, groups, or activity.

Keep valuables out of plain-sight. Refrain from carrying credit cards, large sums of cash, or valuables that you are unwilling to give up in the event of a robbery. You should limit the amount of cash you carry and leave valuables (passports, jewelry, and airline tickets) in a hotel safe or other secure place. Keep wallets and other valuables where they will be less susceptible to pickpockets. Avoid carrying handbags. Always carry a copy of your passport. If you are threatened with violence over money/belongings, RSO recommends complying with demands and attempting to end the confrontation as quickly as possible.

Foreign currency should be exchanged in authorized banks, hotels, and other legally authorized outlets, and proper receipts should be obtained for the transactions. Credit cards are not accepted at most hotels, restaurants, shops, or other local facilities, although they are accepted at the Hilton, Sheraton, and Radisson Blu Hotels in Addis Ababa. Many hotels and establishments are not permitted to accept foreign currency or may be reluctant to do so.

Do not buy counterfeit and pirated goods. Permits are required before exporting either antiques or animal skins. Antique religious artifacts, including "Ethiopian crosses.” require documentation from the National Museum in Addis Ababa for export.

Carry your cell phone at all times. Inform others of where you are going, if possible. Make sure to have the embassy switchboard phone numbers programmed into your phone. If you notice suspicious vehicles following you, take note of vehicle descriptions and license plate numbers.

Do not leave valuables or large amounts of cash in your house. These items are best kept locked in a secured area at work. Only give your keys to a trusted person; do not leave them in possession with others (guards). Keep your doors and vehicle locked even when you are at home. Identify a secure lockable area away from windows where you can hunker down in case of an intruder. Alarms, guards, and dogs are outstanding deterrents to criminals.