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Overseas Security Advisory Council
Bureau of Diplomatic Security
U.S. Department of State

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China 2019 Crime & Safety Report: Beijing

The current U.S. Department of State Travel Advisory at the date of this report’s publication assesses China at Level 2, indicating travelers should exercise increased caution due to arbitrary enforcement of local laws as well as special restrictions on dual U.S.-Chinese nationals.

Overall Crime and Safety Situation

The U.S. Embassy in Beijing does not assume responsibility for the professional ability or integrity of the persons or firms appearing in this report. The American Citizen Services (ACS) unit cannot recommend a particular individual or establishment and assumes no responsibility for the quality of services provided.

Review OSAC’s China page for original OSAC reporting, consular messages, and contact information, some of which may be available only to private-sector representatives with an OSAC password.

Crime Threats

There is minimal risk from crime in Beijing. China’s capital has a population of more than 21.5 million people and is generally safe when compared to other global cities. The presence of police and security personnel throughout the city serves to deter most serious crime, while petty crime occurs with some regularity. The income disparity in Chinese society has been a source of social friction and has is a root cause of much of the economic crime experienced in Beijing and other large Chinese cities. This includes pickpocketing, credit card fraud, and various financial scams, many of which target foreign (including U.S.) travelers due to perceptions of wealth.

The most common criminal incidents are minor petty crimes, which tend to occur in areas frequented by tourists, at shopping centers, and on crowded public transportation during peak hours. In such locations, travelers may have little or no personal space, making them more vulnerable to pickpocketing and petty theft. Thieves may target cell phones, cameras, jewelry, cash, and credit cards, among other personal belongings.

Violent crimes, such as workplace assaults, are less common, but do occur on occasion. These types of incidents garner significant media attention, but are not considered the norm. Violent crime affecting the expatriate community most often occurs in the bars and clubs of Beijing’s nightlife districts. Bar fights are common, and the Embassy periodically receives reports regarding violence against Westerners. Cultural miscommunication, xenophobia, and alcohol use all play a role, with certain bars garnering a reputation for violence. Bouncers at these clubs and bars often contribute to incidents of violence, and have at times been described as physically aggressive toward patrons. The legal age for consuming alcohol is 18; however, most establishments do not require identification. Some bars are overcrowded do not routinely enforce safety standards. Prostitutes and drugs are known to be present in some clubs.

Criminals use various scams to defraud foreign victims. One scam involves locals approaching tourists and asking to practice English, visit an art house, or experience a traditional tea ceremony. Once the ceremony has been “completed,” unsuspecting victims are often charged exorbitant sums. The victims are forced to turn over their credit cards under physical intimidation or threats that the police will arrest them if they do not comply. The credit cards may be charged hundreds (if not thousands) of dollars, and the victim is forced to sign the receipt. In most cases, the victims are released unharmed – though distraught or embarrassed – and threatened not to notify the authorities. When the local police are engaged, little is done because the victims generally do not report the crime until after they have departed China. Police are often unwilling to investigate crimes if the complainant is not in China. In instances where the victim has reported the crime to the police immediately, the evidence of prosecutions is scarce.

Another scam involves individuals posing as plainclothes police officers who threaten to levy fake criminal charges against a victim. The perpetrators typically propose a financial solution to the alleged crimes. If the victim agrees to pay the proposed fine, the charges “disappear,” and the victim is released. Scam artists have also sent text messages and emails referring to fraudulent bills and/or traffic tickets to con people into transferring money.

In some popular tourist areas, women will lure men to a private room in a bar or nearby building, sometimes using the promise of a cheap massage. These woman are usually prostitutes and will aggressively transition from a legitimate massage to more sexual acts. Afterward, strongmen will extort the victim for additional funding (typically a “room fee”), and forced him to use his credit or debit cards to access additional cash.

The distribution of counterfeit Chinese currency is a recurring risk in China. Unsuspecting visitors are passed fraudulent notes at restaurants, stores, ATMs, and in taxi cabs. Large numbers of 100 RMB and 50 RMB counterfeit notes are regularly in circulation, and even smaller denominations (such 10 RMB and 20 RMB notes) have been introduced.

A common tactic used in taxis involves passengers paying with a 100 RMB note. The driver switches the note with a counterfeit bill, “returns” the bill, and rejects it as counterfeit – only to then demand another genuine note. One recommended countermeasure is to take a picture of bills before giving them to the driver. This will ensure that the “fake” notes are the same ones as those originally presented to the driver.

Beggars with young and/or disabled children may approach visitors on the street. Another variation involves beggars with sound amplifiers strapped to their upper bodies who sing sad Chinese songs in an effort to evoke sympathy. Some of these beggars may be part of a larger network of criminals who use children and handicapped persons in their criminal enterprise.

Cybersecurity Issues

There is no expectation of privacy in China. The Chinese government has the capability to monitor cellphones, tablets, and computers connected to the internet. China is known for the use of sophisticated cyber capabilities including spearphishing, targeting of mobile devices, social engineering, and network manipulation. Viruses, malware, and other forms of malicious software are common.

The government proactively monitors all media outlets, and will temporarily block international media outlets during broadcasts of news stories considered unfavorable to the Chinese government. This includes international news organizations like CNN, BBC, and France 24.

The government controls the internet within China and restricts access to some common internet sites based outside of China. OSAC constituents frequently report incidents involving restricted bandwidth or high latency, which makes email and internet browsing frustratingly slow.  

Information security is an organization-wide challenge that merges both physical and cyber security. Organizations must develop a holistic approach to defend against a perceived increase in cybersecurity threats, including the following basic countermeasures:

  • Use “burner” devices that have limited information on them and can be erased after a trip is complete;
  • Minimize the number of mobile devices you carry and keep devices with you at all times to maintain their integrity;
  • Do not accept electronic gifts, including USB devices;
  • Enable two-factor authentication for email and apps, including social media.


See the OSAC report title China Tariffs and Cyber Espionage for more recommended cyber security practices. 

Other Areas of Concern

China shares a lengthy border with North Korea. Due to the serious and mounting risk of arrest and long-term detention of U.S. citizens, travelers close to the border should use extreme caution. For the most current information, refer to the North Korea Travel Advisory.

Transportation-Safety Situation

Road Safety and Road Conditions

All drivers in China must possess a Chinese driver’s license. International or U.S. licenses are not valid in China.

The physical road conditions in larger cities are good; in contrast, road conditions in rural areas are usually poor. Beijing adds some 1,200 newly registered vehicles to the roads every day, causing already congested roads to come to a standstill during rush hour. Additionally, a great number of pedestrians and bikers weave through traffic, creating a hazardous mix of conditions.

Traffic laws are routinely ignored, and most drivers are inexperienced, since private ownership of vehicles was not allowed until the last decade. According to China’s official English-language newspaper, the China Daily, nearly one-half of the accidents in Beijing are caused by drivers who have less than four years of driving experience. Traffic patterns and driving habits make crossing the street in Beijing dangerous. Pedestrians do not have the right of way, even when walking with the light. A limited number of crosswalks, poorly maintained sidewalks, and bike lanes that are not respected by motor vehicle drivers make all forms of transportation relatively risky.

The greatest road hazard remains the inexperienced Chinese driver. Many are either overly cautious or overly aggressive. According to one local media report, traffic-related deaths were the leading cause of deaths for individuals under the age of 45. Drivers disregard traffic laws, and policing is done remotely by video camera (mainly with speed traps). Yielding to oncoming traffic or pedestrians is uncommon, as is the use of turn signals. Traffic signals are absent at key locations and some do not conform to norms. Left-turn signals at many intersections do not have corresponding signals to halt oncoming traffic. Driving while under the influence of alcohol is also common.

Busy roads often lack shoulders, forcing bicycles and scooters into driving lanes. Where there are shoulders, cars generally use them as another travel lane, especially on crowded highways. It is common to see drivers back up on the highway to get to an exit they missed, stop on the side of the highway to drop off passengers (before slowing merging back into high-speed traffic), or veer horizontally across several lanes of traffic to get to an off-ramp.

The Embassy responds to dozens of traffic accidents involving U.S. diplomats annually; most are minor and are resolved on the scene. In many cases, bicyclists strike a static or moving vehicle.  In traffic accidents, the foreigner is often ruled at fault, regardless of the actual cause of the accident. Drivers involved in accidents should not argue with the other party involved in a traffic accident, regardless of fault.

Public Transportation Conditions

As one of the world’s most populous cities, all forms of public transportation in Beijing are crowded, but can become dangerously so during peak times such as the morning and evening commutes. Few Embassy personnel take public buses, as they are crowded to dangerous levels, have poor temperature controls, and do not provide route information in English. The subway system is extensive.

Although inter-city train trips can be quite long due to the considerable distances between most major cities, the high-speed train system is generally considered safe and efficient. Trains and train stations are crowded during holiday travel periods. In 2013, train stations became the target for several terrorist incidents in western and southwestern China. In 2017, 356 million travelers rode the country’s rail system during the Lunar New Year, which eclipsed the Hajj Pilgrimage as the world’s largest annual population movement.

Use official taxis (two-tone sedans in Beijing) that employ meters. If a driver refuses to use a meter, exit the vehicle and use another taxi. Beijing taxis are affordable, but can be difficult to hail, as supply falls far short of demand, especially during peak times. Taxis sometimes refuse to stop for foreigners, particularly those of African descent. Stories abound of foreigners stranded for long periods because they could not get a taxi.

Most drivers do not understand English and do not recognize the English names of popular hotels, shopping centers, or tourist sites (which often have no relationship to the Chinese names). Taxi drivers often refuse to take fares that require them to leave the center of the city, making it very difficult for travelers who live in or visit the suburbs. Taxis almost never have working seatbelts for passenger use. Some hotels can provide guests with taxi cards written in English and Mandarin that include the hotel name, address, and common points of interest. Didi (the most popular ride-share service in China) is a frequently alternative to taxis.

In a limited number of cases, foreigners have reported sexual assaults, luggage theft, or exorbitant overcharges while using unlicensed taxis. Luggage theft typically involves a taxi transporting individuals to or from the airport and the driver intentionally leaving the scene before the bags are unloaded.

The Embassy occasionally receives reports of foreigners taking rickshaws or pedi-cabs at tourist sites in Beijing (e.g., Tiananmen Square and Houhai Park) and being driven through hutongs (narrow, walled-in streets or alleys), where they were subsequently robbed or extorted. In most cases, victims are physically unharmed.

Aviation/Airport Conditions

Air travel out of Beijing, to domestic and international locations alike, remains quite expensive as the government regulates prices and competition. Flight delays are a common occurrence, including those that result from sudden military closures, and such delays are often not announced or explained to passengers. This can make travel planning particularly difficult and often too unpredictable for weekend trips. Beijing International Airport (PEK) experienced frequent delays throughout 2018, making transportation by rail a preferred and more dependable option.

Terrorism Threat.

Local, Regional, and International Terrorism Threats/Concerns

There is minimal risk from terrorism in Beijing. The Embassy is unaware of any significant transnational terrorist presence in China. China’s domestic counterterrorism efforts remain primarily focused against the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM, aka the East Turkestan Islamic Party or ETIP), a Pakistan-based terrorist group seeking independence for the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region (XUAR) of northwestern China. In public statements, government officials singled out the “Three Evils” of extremism, separatism, and terrorism in Xinjiang as the main terrorist threats to the nation, and characterized ethnic-Uighur discontent as terrorist activity. Human rights organizations maintain that Chinese authorities use counterterrorism as a pretext to suppress Uighurs, a predominantly Muslim ethnic group that comprises a large percentage of the population of the XUAR.

The lack of transparency and information provided about alleged terrorist incidents in China greatly complicates efforts to verify details of violent extremist acts. In many of the domestic incidents labeled as terrorism, China alleges that ETIM influenced or directed the violence through its online propaganda. China also prevents foreign journalists and international observers from independently verifying official media accounts, which are often the only source of reporting on local communal violence. Foreign and non-state media access to information about past incidents are heavily restricted and often limited to official accounts that are not timely and typically lack detailed information.

Anti-U.S./Anti-Western Sentiment

Protests outside of official U.S. facilities occur occasionally, but the majority tend to be small and peaceful. In 2018, an apparently emotionally disturbed person injured himself by setting off an improvised explosive device along the U.S. Embassy compound’s perimeter. The attacker survived, and no other injuries were reported. Throughout 2018, several Embassy employees also reported being harassed or assaulted by Chinese nationals due to their official occupations. In most cases, the suspects appeared to be emotionally disturbed persons.

Political, Economic, Religious, and Ethnic Violence

Civil Unrest

There is minimal risk from civil unrest in Beijing. The government remains focused on maintaining social stability and preventing civil unrest caused by economic and social complaints. The largest, most violent incidents have taken place in ethnic minority areas (e.g., Tibet and XUAR), where grievances over human rights abuses and discriminatory policies have resulted in spontaneous outbursts of violence targeting the government and Han Chinese interests.

The government controls all information available to Chinese citizens by censoring topics in books, social media, news outlets, radio broadcasts, billboards, and magazines. Most Chinese citizens are unaware of controversial Chinese issues well known outside of China.

The local government has taken steps to remove or demolish local migrant worker villages after a fire raged through a migrant worker apartment in Xinjian Village and killed 19 people. These villages consist primarily of small, narrow homes; alleyway vegetable carts; and courtyard houses. The villages are home to many low-income residences, illegal migrant employees, unlicensed small businesses, and squatters who cannot afford rent in the greater Beijing community. These evictions have the potential of causing small demonstrations, and fostering an uptick in petty crime in the greater Beijing community. 

Post-specific Concerns

Environmental Hazards

Natural disasters are not uncommon in China. A 7.9-magnitude earthquake struck Sichuan Province in 2008, killing more than 69,000 people and leaving nearly five million people homeless. Severe weather, such as large snowstorms, has brought parts of the country to a virtual standstill at times. Even smaller-scale storms often lead to multiple traffic accidents. Snow removal is typically slow and accomplished by employing thousands of laborers armed with shovels and brooms.  China’s southern coast is subject to heavy rainfall, flooding, and monsoons throughout the year. Southern China experienced massive mudslides in 2010, causing significant property damage.

Critical Infrastructure Concerns

Accidents and fatalities continue to plague China’s heavy industries. Worker safety and quality assurance procedures have improved slightly, but typically do not meet Western standards. Commercial transportation accidents involving motorized vehicles are not uncommon. Trucks are often overloaded and drivers are poorly trained. Bus accidents are also common in China. Poor driver training, overloaded buses, and the lack of safety checks are major contributors to accidents.

In 2015, a series of explosions at a container storage station at the Port of Tianjin resulted in the death of over 100 people and hundreds of injuries. Fires caused by the initial explosions burned uncontrolled for days, repeatedly causing secondary explosions. Chinese state media attributed the initial blast to a warehouse owned by a firm that specialized in handling hazardous materials.

Economic Concerns

Embassy employees may not to discuss sensitive information in their homes, vehicles, or offices. Private-sector travelers should take similar precautions to safeguard sensitive, personal, and/or proprietary information. Be particularly mindful that trade secrets, negotiating positions, and other business-sensitive information may be taken and shared with competitors, counterparts, and/or Chinese regulatory and legal entities.

Counterfeit products are readily available, but it is illegal to import them into the U.S. Customs and Border Protection officials in the U.S. have the authority to seize suspicious goods and impose fines on travelers caught attempting to enter the U.S. with counterfeit items.

Privacy Concerns

Visitors should have no expectation of privacy in public or private locations. Security personnel carefully watch foreign visitors, and may place them under surveillance. Authorities may monitor hotel rooms (including meeting rooms), offices, cars, taxis, telephones, Internet usage, and smartphone applications remotely. Overt placement of microphones and video cameras in taxis is common. Elevators and public areas of housing compounds are under continuous surveillance. Authorities may search personal possessions in hotel rooms, including computers, without the occupant’s knowledge or consent.

The areas around U.S. and other foreign diplomatic facilities and residences are under overt physical and video surveillance. Authorities post dozens of security personnel outside of facilities and around residences, while video cameras are visible throughout the diplomatic offices and residential neighborhoods of Beijing. In 2016, U.S. Embassy employees reported an increase in the tampering of locks on the front door of their residences, suggesting forced entry. In some cases, the tampering led to door locks that no longer operated as intended.

The Chinese government has publicly declared that it regularly monitors private email and internet browsing through cooperation with the limited number of internet service providers (ISPs) in China. Wireless access in major metropolitan areas is becoming more common. As a result, Chinese authorities can more easily access official and personal computers. U.S. Embassy employees have reported seeing unknown computers and devices accessing their home networks. These intrusions likely required advanced technical knowledge, including the hacking of network passwords, to enable such a connection.

The government blocks many popular services and websites, such as Google, Twitter, and Facebook. WeChat and other applications are nearly ubiquitous; however, these Chinese domestic alternatives have built-in features that allow the Chinese government to monitor and censor messages, access the device’s address book and photos, track the user’s location, and activate the microphone or camera. Bloggers are subject to particular scrutiny, and may have their content blocked depending on the profile, following, and content of their posts.

Personal Identity Concerns

The Chinese government frequently deploys extralegal measures to compel U.S. citizens to resolve business disputes, force settlements for court orders, or lengthen the timeline of government investigations. One form of this is “exit bans,” which prohibit departure until the issue has been resolved. The Chinese government has also implemented exit bans for individuals, typically family members of those being investigated, not involved in legal proceedings or suspected of any wrongdoing. The Chinese government uses these family member exit bans to compel the person under investigation to cooperate with Chinese courts or investigators.

China may enforce special restrictions on dual U.S.-Chinese nationals, including denying U.S. government assistance to detained dual nationals and preventing the departure of dual nationals from China. If a dual U.S.-Chinese national enters China on a PRC-issued travel document (e.g., a Chinese passport) and is detained, the U.S. Government will not be allowed to visit the individual in detention or to provide any Consular assistance in interactions with the Chinese government. 

Reports of discrimination based on gender, sexual orientation, race, nationality, disability, etc. are relatively uncommon.

Kidnapping Threat

Kidnappings occur mostly over business disputes and might better be categorized as “unlawful detentions,” often in the office or hotel room of the victim. Victims are generally allowed to use their mobile phones (to arrange the resolution of the dispute) and should immediately call the police for assistance. Some local businesspeople who feel that they have been wronged by a foreign business partner may hire “debt collectors” to harass and intimidate the foreigner in hopes of collecting the debt. Foreign managers or company owners have been physically “held hostage” as leverage during dispute negotiations. In addition, travel bans have been placed on foreigners involved in business disputes. The U.S. Department of State has no law enforcement authority in China, and can neither get involved in private disputes nor give legal advice.

Drug-related Crimes

 The Chinese government is concerned about domestic drug use, but drug-related crimes do not appear to be a significant issue affecting the U.S. private sector. Although illicit drugs are present, enforcement efforts are widespread, and the punishment for the use or trafficking of drugs can be severe.

Police Response

Police response for foreign victims of crime will depend upon the type of infraction, where it transpired, and the social status of the victim (e.g., private citizen, diplomat, VIP, etc.). Urban forces in Beijing and other first-tier cities, where authorities have spent millions of dollars on security-related infrastructure, are generally better trained and equipped than in other locales. Local police are somewhat effective at deterring crime. Most responses to alarms/emergency calls are sufficiently prompt if the police are informed that the victim is a Westerner or person of importance. In many cases, local police authorities will serve as a mediator between the victim and criminal, often to agree upon financial compensation in lieu of jail time.

Investigative training and forensic equipment is improving, but remains substandard when compared to developed countries. Chinese law enforcement relies heavily on the large volume of cameras to police public areas, and makes regular use of their facial recognition technology. In addition, businesses are required to install camera systems with a 45-day capacity for digital video recording (DVR), which serves as a crime deterrent (despite numerous privacy concerns). This technology is also used to monitor any kind of protest activity, which will normally be met with a robust police response.

How to Handle Incidents of Police Detention or Harassment

Police have the authority to detain and deport foreigners for a wide variety of reasons. Travelers who do not have their passport with them may be detained for questioning. If authorities arrest a U.S. citizen, the U.S.-China Consular Convention requires Chinese authorities to notify the U.S. Embassy or Consulates of the arrest within four days. If a traveler holds the citizenship of another country and entered China using a passport of that country, authorities are not required to notify the U.S. Embassy or Consulates. Typically, the police will not allow anyone other than a Consular officer to visit the traveler during the initial detention period. Authorities rarely grant bail; individuals can be subject to detention for many months before trial.

Police officers have the right to assess fines on the scene of an incident. This is sometimes perceived as soliciting for a bribe, but it is not.

Crime Victim Assistance

The local emergency number is 110; however, very few English speakers staff this hotline. Victims should also contact the American Citizen Services (ACS) unit at the Embassy or Consulate for assistance. ACS officers can provide information about local medical facilities, provide contact information for local attorneys, notify family members, and explain how to transfer funds to China.


If a passport is stolen, the victim must not only apply for a new passport at the U.S. Embassy or nearest Consulate, but must also apply for a new visa. To receive a new visa, you must file a police report at the police station nearest to where the theft occurred. You may also be directed to file a report at the local Entry/Exit Bureau as well. If someone steals your passport, file the theft with the police right away.

Medical Emergencies

Western-style medical facilities with international staff are available in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and a few other large cities. U.S. citizens are advised to use Western medical centers whenever possible. Hospitals with VIP sections (gao gan bing fang) may be more likely to have reasonably up-to-date medical technology and skilled physicians who typically speak English.

Municipal and private ambulance services in China remain substandard. Response time is typically very slow, and transport to the nearest hospital can take a considerable amount of time due to traffic congestion. Ambulances do not typically carry sophisticated medical equipment, and ambulance personnel generally have limited medical training and/or English-language skills. As a result, injured or seriously ill U.S. patients may need to take taxis or other vehicles to the nearest major hospital.

In rural areas, only rudimentary medical facilities are generally available. Medical personnel in rural areas are often poorly trained and have little medical equipment or access to medications. Rural clinics are often reluctant to accept responsibility for treating foreigners, even in emergency situations.

Contact Information for Available Hospitals/Clinics

For a list of available medical facilities, refer to the Embassy’s Medical Assistance page.

Available Air Ambulance Services

The availability of air ambulance services varies by city. For a list of Air Medical Evacuation Resources covering China, refer to the Embassy’s Emergency Assistance webpage.

Insurance Guidance

Consider buying foreign medical care and medical evacuation (medevac) insurance prior to arrival. Consult with your medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether the policy applies overseas, and if it will cover emergency expenses such as a medevac.

Most hospitals will not accept medical insurance from the U.S. Hospitals in major cities may accept credit cards for payment, but U.S. citizens have frequently encountered difficulty due to cultural and regulatory differences. Travelers are typically asked to post a deposit prior to admission to cover the expected cost of treatment.

Country-specific Vaccination and Health Guidance

No China-specific vaccinations are required, but some are recommended. Consult a health care provider before travel to determine what vaccines may be appropriate. The CDC offers additional information on vaccines and health guidance for China.

Poor air quality is often an issue in China. Find air quality ratings for Beijing and other U.S. Mission China posts at the Air Quality Index website. Travelers with chronic respiratory or cardiovascular health conditions should speak with their health care provider prior to traveling to Chinese cities with poor air quality.

OSAC Country Council Information

The Regional Security Office (RSO) in is actively seeking to re-launch the OSAC Beijing Country Council and to establish a regular meeting schedule. Those interested in participating in the Country Council or contacting the RSO should reach out to OSAC’s East Asia Pacific team.

U.S. Embassy Location and Contact Information

Embassy Address and Hours of Operation

U.S. Embassy Beijing, No. 55 An Jia Lou Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100600

Hours: Monday-Friday 0800-1700 (except U.S. and Chinese holidays)

Embassy Contact Numbers

Telephone: 86-10-8531-4000 (24/7)

Post One: 86-10-8531-4444

E-mail: BeijingACS@state.gov

Website: https://china.usembassy-china.org.cn/embassy-consulates/beijing/

Nearby Posts              

Consulate Chengdu: https://china.usembassy-china.org.cn/embassy-consulates/chengdu/

Consulate Guangzhou: https://china.usembassy-china.org.cn/embassy-consulates/guangzhou/

Consulate Shanghai: https://china.usembassy-china.org.cn/embassy-consulates/shanghai/

Consulate Shenyang: https://china.usembassy-china.org.cn/embassy-consulates/shenyang/

Consulate Wuhan: https://china.usembassy-china.org.cn/embassy-consulates/wuhan/

Embassy Guidance

U.S. citizens traveling to China should register with the Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP) to ensure they receive pertinent security updates and notices.

Make copies of your passport photo page and visa, as well as credit card numbers (and the respective contact information). Store these copies at your hotel or residence in the event the actual items are stolen or lost.

Additional Resources

China Country Information Sheet



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