is an annual report produced in conjunction with the Regional Security Office
at the U.S. Consulate in Melbourne. OSAC encourages travelers to use
this report to gain baseline knowledge of security conditions in the Australian
State of Victoria, and throughout the Consular District, which includes Tasmania,
South Australia, and the Northern Territory. For more in-depth information,
review OSAC’s Australia
country page for original OSAC reporting, consular messages, and contact
information, some of which may be available only to private-sector
representatives with an OSAC password.
The current U.S. Department of State Travel
Advisory at the date of this report’s publication assesses
Australia at Level 1, indicating travelers should exercise normal precautions. Review
OSAC’s report, Understanding the
Consular Travel Advisory System.
Overall Crime and Safety Situation
U.S. Department of State has assessed Melbourne as being a LOW-threat location for crime directed at or affecting official
U.S. government interests. Melbourne is generally a safe city, but is not
immune from crimes commonly associated with large urban areas. Crime Statistics
Agency reporting reflects that for the period of 2018-19, there were 529,230 offenses
recorded in the state of Victoria, an increase of 4.1% from the previous year.
This equated to approximately 8,024 offenses recorded per 100,000 population.
There were a total of 310,291 victim (individual, businesses, and
organizations) reports across the state (one victim may report multiple
offenses/offenders). Approximately 70% of victims (individuals only) had
principal offenses related to property and or deception (e.g. arson property
damage, theft, burglary, breaking and entering, bribery); 30% were crimes
against the person (e.g. assault, robbery, sexual offense, blackmail, stalking,
theft was one of the most common crimes reported. Vehicle theft is rare.
Property crimes (e.g. burglary, breaking and entering, theft) occur throughout
Australia. The frequency of such crime is on par with most major U.S.
metropolitan areas. Secure personal belongings appropriately. Do not leave
personal items unattended in cafes and restaurants, or in plain view within
motor vehicles. In restaurants or cafes, place your bag on your lap. Carry your
purse and handbag close to your body. Review OSAC’s
report, All That You Should Leave Behind.
following paragraphs show a state-by-state breakdown of criminal statistics, according
to the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2018-2019 National
Crime Victimization Survey.
(Home to Melbourne)
crime in Australia is relatively low, with fewer than 100 reported cases of
armed robbery, murder, or sexual assault per 100,000 persons nationally. In
Victoria, most crimes against a person were assault offenses (45,658 or 692 per
100,000); many of these are alcohol-related incidents. Exercise the same level
of caution and security awareness as you would in any major city in the United
States. In Victoria, there were 189 criminal homicide incidents, which include
attempted murder, accessory or conspiracy to murder, manslaughter, and death
caused by driving.
estimated 5.2% of persons in Victoria (270,600) experienced physical and/or
threatened assault in 2018-2019, similar to the rate in 2017-18 (4.6%). An
estimated 2.4% of persons (126,300) experienced physical assault, similar to
the rate in 2017-18 (2.0%). Of these, 48% (60,700) experienced a single
incident; and 25% (31,100) experienced three or more incidents.
estimated 3.2% of persons (165,900) experienced threatened assault in 2018-2019,
similar to the rate in 2017-18 (3.0%). This included 2.8% (148,300) who
experienced face-to-face threatened assault; and 1.1% (58,400) who experienced
non face-to-face threatened assault.
estimated 2.2% of households (54,200) experienced a break-in, similar to the
rate in 2017-18 (2.5%). An estimated 1.6% of households (39,200) experienced an
attempted break-in, a decrease from 2.2% in 2017-18.
estimated 3.1% of households (76,300) experienced theft from a motor vehicle,
which was similar to the rate in 2017-18 (3.7%), and higher than the national
rate in 2018-19 (2.5%).
estimated 4.8% of households (120,100) experienced malicious property damage, a
decrease from 5.8% in 2017-18.
Australia (Home to Adelaide)
estimated 4.5% of persons in South Australia (63,200) experienced physical
and/or threatened assault in 2018-2109, similar to the rate in 2017-18 (4.4%). An
estimated 2.3% of persons (32,500) experienced physical assault, similar to the
rate in 2017-18 (2.4%). Of these, 35% (11,200) experienced a single incident. An
estimated 3.1% of persons (43,000) experienced threatened assault, similar to
the rate in 2017-18 (2.8%). This included 2.6% (36,200) who experienced
face-to-face threatened assault; and 1.4% (18,900) who experienced non
face-to-face threatened assault.
estimated 2.2% of households (15,500) experienced a break-in, similar to the rate
in 2017-18 (2.0%). An estimated 1.9% of households (13,800) experienced an
attempted break-in, with the rate remaining unchanged since 2017-18.
estimated 2.5% of households (18,000) experienced theft from a motor vehicle,
similar to the rate in 2017-18 (2.8%). An estimated 4.4% of households (31,700)
experienced malicious property damage, similar to the rate in 2017-18 (4.2%).
estimated 6.1% of persons in Tasmania (25,900) experienced physical and/or
threatened assault in 2018-2019, which was similar to the rate in 2017-18
(5.2%), and higher than the national rate in 2018-19 (4.8%). An estimated 2.6%
of persons (11,300) experienced physical assault, similar to the rate in
2017-18 (2.4%). An estimated 4.2% of persons (17,800) experienced threatened
assault, which was, similar to the rate in 2017-18 (3.5%); and higher than the
national rate in 2018-19 (3.0%). An estimated 3.7% of persons (16,000)
experienced face-to-face threatened assault, which was higher than the national
rate (2.8%), while 1.5% (6,300) experienced non face-to-face threatened
estimated 2.2% of households (5,100) experienced a break-in, similar to the
rate in 2017-18 (2.1%). An estimated 1.7% of households (3,900) experienced an
attempted break-in, similar to the rate in 2017-18 (1.8%).
estimated 1.7% of households (4,000) experienced theft from a motor vehicle, which
was similar to the rate in 2017-18 (2.1%), and lower than the national rate in
estimated 4.6% of households (10,500) experienced malicious property damage,
similar to the rate in 2017-18 (4.9%).
estimated 8.5% of persons (12,300) experienced physical and/or threatened
assault, which was similar to the rate in 2017-18 (6.7%),and higher than the
national rate in 2018-19 (4.8%). An estimated 5.0% of persons (7,300)
experienced physical assault, which was similar to the rate in 2017-18 (3.7%), and
higher than the national rate in 2018-19 (2.4%). An estimated 4.5% of persons
(6,500) experienced threatened assault, which was similar to the rate in
2017-18 (3.5%). This included 4.4% (6,400) who experienced face-to-face
estimated 6.4% of households (4,000) experienced a break-in, which was similar
to the rate in 2017-18 (6.0%), and higher than the national rate in 2018-19
estimated 5.4% of households (3,400) experienced attempted break-in, which was,
similar to the rate in 2017-18 (4.5%), and higher than the national rate in
estimated 3.5% of households (2,200) experienced theft from a motor vehicle,
which was similar to the rate in 2017-18 (4.1%).
estimated 7.7% of households (4,800) experienced malicious property damage,
which was similar to the rate in 2017-18 (7.0%), and higher than the national
rate in 2018-19 (4.6%).
robberies occasionally occur in Australia, are more prominent in cities, and
are most frequently committed with knives. Criminals sometimes use firearms in
the commission of crimes, but Australia has extremely restrictive firearms
legislation compared to U.S. laws. Local police attribute most burglaries and
robberies to increased heroin and methamphetamine (ICE) use.
the past 24 months, there have been two significant incidents involving
individuals using a motor vehicle as a weapon within the Melbourne Central
Business District (CBD).
Outlaw motorcycle gangs in Australia include international clubs
like the Bandidos, Hells Angels, and Gypsyjokers, as well as local groups such
as the Rebels. In general, these groups participate in drug trafficking
and other organized criminal activities like the sex trade.
violence receives wide media coverage in Victoria. The state government has
taken steps to change laws to focus on the problem. Youth street gangs
including APEX, MTS (Menace to Society), and BDK (Blood Drill Killers) have
been responsible for a number of high-profile displays of violent and criminal
offenses. These groups are composed predominately of members of the African
community; many refer to them as “African Youth Gangs.” The Victoria Police are
engaging with leaders of the local African community as a part of an
African-Australian Community Task Force in an attempt to assess emerging trends
and prevent the continuance of youth gang crimes. Recent media reporting has
highlighted the over-representation of young persons of South Sudanese decent
in aggravated burglary, serious assault, and motor vehicle theft.
criminals continue to gain access to networks primarily through targeted emails
and spear phishing campaigns; this is the greatest threat to cyber security in
the region. The chief motivation for cyber-attacks was financial gain. This
aligns with the cyber threat of most concern to the private sector, which is
theft or breach of confidential information or intellectual property (IP).
were 36,251 (property) deception offenses recorded during the reporting period,
a slight decrease on the previous year in Victoria. The majority of deception
offenses occur in retail/financial locations. The Australian Cybercrime Online
Reporting Network (ACORN)
provides information on how to recognize and avoid common forms of cybercrime,
including advice for victims. Review OSAC’s reports, Cybersecurity Basics,
Best Practices for Maximizing Security
on Public Wi-Fi, Traveling with Mobile Devices: Trends
& Best Practices, and Satellite Phones: Critical or
should monitor the SCAM Watch website
maintained by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) for the
latest information on how to recognize, avoid, and report scams.
skimming is relatively low compared to most countries; however, card skimming operations
are discovered. Cover ATM keypads when entering their PINs. Taxi drivers and
international organized crime groups have also been used card skimming
machines, although the rate of incidence is low. Review OSAC’s reports, The Overseas Traveler’s Guide to ATM
Skimmers & Fraud and Taking Credit.
Road Safety and Road Conditions
safety on Australian roads is excellent. Authorities enforce speed limits strictly
via an extensive system of cameras and officers. Holiday weekends typically
bring a rise in roadside fatalities, as many Australians drive long distances
to popular beach destinations. Drunk driving enforcement checkpoints operate
randomly. For persons driving with a full license, the legal blood alcohol
limit in Victoria is 0.05%, while those with a restricted license (learner or
provisional) may not drive under any influence of alcohol.
case of a motor vehicle accident in Victoria, the driver should stop to help
injured persons. Each party must provide their name, address, registration
(license plate) number, and vehicle owner's name/address to the other party
involved in the crash. This includes the owner of the property damaged or
injured person (or a person representing them). If there are injuries,
mitigating factors (e.g. persons under the influence or substantial property
damage), and police are not in attendance, report the crash in person to the
nearest open police station. Compulsory third-party insurance is a condition of
motor vehicle licensing. If a crash occurs involving an unlicensed vehicle, the
driver and owner may be financially liable for the damages paid to the injured
Traffic operates on the left side of the road, and all vehicles
use right-hand drive. Seat belt use by drivers and all passengers is mandatory,
and fines apply for not wearing them. Motorcyclists must wear helmets. Texting
or holding your phone while driving is against the law in Australia, but you
can use a hands-free system to communicate while driving. Roads and streets are
frequently narrower and less graded than U.S. highways. Outside major
metropolitan areas, most highways are two-lane roads with significant distances
between destinations. If driving in rural areas, be alert to free-roaming
animals, such as kangaroos, and "road-trains" (several semi-truck
trailers connected together). Passing road-trains is dangerous; pull over to
allow on-coming road-trains to pass to avoid being sideswiped. Exercise
common-sense when driving in the outback.
Review OSAC’s reports, Road Safety Abroad, Driving Overseas: Best Practices,
and Evasive Driving Techniques; and read the State Department’s
webpage on driving and road safety abroad.
Public Transportation Conditions
are safe, but can be difficult to hail during high-demand periods. Taxi drivers
must display their identification prominently in the vehicle (on the vehicle
dashboard/windscreen visor). Rideshare services operate in cities and most
transportation is generally safe and popular. Melbourne’s public transport
system includes trains, trams, buses, and taxis. In Victoria, there were 11,268
incidents recorded on/at public transport facilities during 2018-2019. All
Melbourne train stations maintain a police presence from 1800 until the last
train; Protective Services Officer (PSO) routinely conduct mobile train patrols
throughout Melbourne's CBD railway stations and in a more limited fashion
across suburban stations. Review OSAC’s report, Security In Transit:
Airplanes, Public Transport, and Overnights.
international and domestic airports meet International Civil Aviation
Organization (ICAO) standards. The Australian Federal Police oversee security
at all international airports. Australian international and domestic airports
meet International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Standards. Melbourne has
two large commercial airports: Melbourne (Tullamarine) Airport (MEL) is
Australia’s second busiest airport; Avalon Airport (AVV) located approximately
50 kilometers to the southwest of Melbourne, in Greater Geelong. The Australian
Federal Police oversee security at all Australian international airports.
U.S. Department of State has assessed Melbourne as being a MEDIUM-threat location for terrorism directed at or affecting
official U.S. government interests. There have been seven terrorist attacks and
16 disrupted plots in Australia since September 2014. Melbourne continues to be
one of the top Australian targets. The potential return of dozens of Australian
foreign fighters continues to pose a long-term risk, while homegrown extremists
with basic, readily available weapons may be the greatest near-term threat.
Active shooter incidents and vehicle attacks at mass gatherings continue to be
of high concern to law enforcement. Most recent terrorism-related incidents have
involved young, homegrown Australian extremists influenced and inspired online.
response to potential threats, Australian authorities have updated the National
Terrorism Threat Advisory system to inform Australians about the likelihood
of a terrorist attack, and to enable authorities, businesses, and individuals
to take appropriate safety and security measures. The new system includes five
tiers, ranging from “Not Expected” to “Certain.” The current terrorism threat
advisory level is “Probable,” signifying that while there is no information
regarding a specific, credible plot, individuals or groups have developed both
the intent and capability to conduct a terrorist attack in Australia.
January 2019, several diplomatic missions in Australia received suspicious packages;
some included threatening letters and material purported to be hazardous. Among
the missions receiving these packages was the U.S. Consulate in Melbourne.
Australian authorities promptly and effectively responded to this event, and
soon thereafter arrested a man believed to be responsible. None of the items
sent were hazardous to the health of the public.
February 2018, a female international student allegedly conducted a terrorist
attack using a knife to stab her homestay landlord while he was asleep in Mill
Park, Victoria; this matter remains before the courts, and the attacker has
pled guilty. In November 2018, a terrorist attack occurred in the Melbourne central
business district (CBD), resulting in the death of one bystander and several
injuries. The offender drove into the CBD, attempted to set his motor vehicle carrying
gas cylinders on fire, and then used a knife to stab nearby pedestrians. Police
responded and fatally shot the terrorist. These incidents followed a terrorist
siege in the Melbourne suburb of Brighton in June 2017, where a terrorist took
a female hostage in a serviced apartment after murdering an attendant/desk
officer. Police responded and fatally shot the terrorist. Three of the
responding police received injuries. In 2016, police arrested three men in
connection to a suicide bombing terror plot aimed at Melbourne’s CBD landmarks;
the court found them guilty of conspiring to commit a terrorist attack. The
Victoria Police, in conjunction with federal law enforcement and security
agencies continue to investigate individuals and groups suspected of engaging
in, or supporting, terrorism.
Australian government continues to make public service advertisements
requesting citizens to remain vigilant and report any suspicious activities to
the authorities. Report suspicious activities to the National Security Hotline
Political, Economic, Religious, and Ethnic Violence
U.S. Department of State has assessed Melbourne as being a LOW-threat location for political violence directed at or affecting
official U.S. government interests. Incidents of civil unrest do not often
occur in Australia. Occasionally there are organized protests in and around the
various government and diplomatic enclaves, however these are typically
peaceful in nature. The potential for violence during protests does exist.
Avoid confrontation with protesters. The Consulate occasionally experiences
peaceful protests by various groups. Visits by high-level U.S. dignitaries may
attract issue-motivated groups.
of political violence directed against the U.S. are relatively infrequent.
Assorted protest actions included a sit-in within the building lobby and the
display of placards. Most protests near U.S. diplomatic facilities continue to
be peaceful. Visits by high-level U.S. dignitaries will occasionally attract
various organizations to whose members protest a variety of topics.
have been a number of anti-Muslim demonstrations in major Australian cities
following high-profile international attacks involving ISIS. Australian policing authorities are capable of managing
can experience extreme weather conditions during the warmer months, creating
the potential for large-scale wildfires. Bushfire season is October through May.
In addition to claiming lives, bushfires can result in major property damage.
in eastern Victoria in early 2020 burned approximately 5% of the state, and
forced the evacuation of numerous towns. A state of disaster was declared for
the most fire-damaged areas in Gippsland, and smoke from the fires
approximately 150-200 miles away blanketed Melbourne and the surrounding suburbs.
planning to reside in Australia should devise a bushfire plan of action. The
Victoria state government has setup a bushfire helpline
Critical Infrastructure Concerns
infrastructure is relatively stable and secure. Major attacks on critical
infrastructure are rare. The most likely threat remains natural disasters
(e.g., cyclones, bushfires, and flooding).
The National Counter-Terrorism Committee (NCTC) coordinates
Australia’s critical infrastructure protection arrangements, including
representatives from the commonwealth, state, and territory governments. The
Australian Security Intelligence Organization (ASIO) has responsibility to
provide intelligence and threat assessments to relevant Commonwealth Government
departments, the Australian Federal Police (AFP), and State and Territory
police. Police also gather and disseminate intelligence to relevant agencies as
and Territory police meet with owners/operators of critical infrastructure, in
accordance with jurisdictional arrangements, to provide information on the
national and localized security threat context. Police will communicate
directly with owners/operators of critical infrastructure where there is an
imminent and specific threat and will coordinate the operational response.
has emphasized that the private sector is not immune from the clandestine or
deceptive activity of foreign governments. ASIO works closely with
private-sector organizations to counter such threats. Several economic
espionage incidents have occurred, particularly those targeting the natural
resource sectors. Economic espionage has occurred through cyberattacks
originating from overseas countries.
has strong counterfeiting and piracy legislation protecting patents,
trademarks, and designs. Intellectual property owners are responsible for
enforcing their own rights through private proceedings. Organizations should
also ensure they do not accidentally infringe on the intellectual property of
The Australian Privacy Act 1988 is similar in content to that of
the U.S Privacy Act of 1974; it places strict controls on the storage and
release of information. Be mindful of where you store personally identifiable
information, and who has access to it. Private and public organizations must
have the consent of an individual before conducting any background
investigations. Failure to obtain an individual’s consent can result in serious
Personal Identity Concerns
are no legal restrictions on same-sex sexual relations or the organization of
LGBTI+ events in Australia. Australian federal law prohibits discrimination
based on sexual orientation. Australia defines marriage as “the union between
two people.” Australia grants temporary and permanent visas to same-sex
partners of Australian citizens. Review the State Department’s webpage on
security for LGBTI+
Australia enforces laws prohibiting discrimination regarding
access to premises, facilities, and accommodation. Many of the downtown areas
of Australian cities were built in the 1800s. These areas often have narrow
sidewalks crowded with pedestrians and tourists. Generally, most public
transit, parking, streets, and buildings are accessible to disabled travelers.
Tourist spots at the beach or in the Australian outback can have varying
degrees of accessibility. Many accommodations and venues provide accessibility
information on their websites. Review the State Department’s webpage on
security for travelers
faces many of the same drug issues as the United States. Australia has an
ever-growing user population, large international drug importation issues,
local clandestine laboratory problems, and an increasing number of individuals
arrested for drug trafficking. Cannabis is the most abused drug in Australia,
followed by ecstasy, methamphetamine, and cocaine. There is an increased use of
illegal prescription drugs, performance-enhancing drugs, and synthetic drugs
like Kronic. Cocaine is a very popular drug among wealthy Australians. Some
ecstasy pills sold in Australia contain synthetic substances instead of MDMA
that can be fatal.
were 16,816 drug related incidents (e.g. dealing, trafficking, use, possession)
in Victoria over the reporting period. Drug dealing and trafficking, along with
drug use and possession offenses, has not increased during the past reporting
year. The majority of incidents (12,536) related to possession and use, with
3,082 incidents relating to dealing and trafficking.
Australian police organizations are well trained and professional.
They have well-equipped emergency response teams (e.g. SWAT, EOD, Negotiator)
that can mobilize and respond to any incident with short notice. Triple zero (000) is the Australian equivalent to the United
States 911 system, and can respond to any emergency in Australia. Callers must
provide basic information such as location and services needed (e.g. fire,
ambulance, and/or police).
Victoria Police provides policing services throughout the state, with 17,000
officers. Its role is to preserve the peace, protect life and property, prevent
offenses, detect and apprehend offenders, and help those in need of assistance.
Victoria Police will respond to all manner of crime ranging from minor traffic
infringements to homicides and counter-terrorism response.
Victoria Department of Justice and Regulation operates services for victims of
crime. Its website
provides full details on how to manage the effects of crime; its helpline is
available from 0800-2300 daily at 1-800-819-817. Victoria Police can provide
guidance to individuals seeking crime victim assistance, providing details of
centers and services relating to areas such as family violence, sexual
offenses, and child abuse cases. Agencies available to assist include the
Sexual Assault Crisis line (for adults), Gatehouse Centre for Assessment and
Treatment of Child Abuse, Women’s Domestic Violence Crisis Service, and the
Men’s Referral Service. Download the State Department’s Crime Victims
complaints of a minor nature regarding the Victoria Police to the nearest
police station Commander. Direct more serious matters to the Victoria Police
website’s “Compliments and Complaints” feature, or through the Independent
Broad-Based Anti-Corruption Commission (IBAC).
Australian Customs and Border Protection Service is the Australian Federal
Government agency responsible for managing the security and integrity of the
Australian border. It facilitates the movement of legitimate international
travelers and goods, while protecting the safety, security, and commercial
interests of Australians. For general enquiries, contact Australian customs at
Australia has a high level of
professional emergency medical services. By dialing 000,
any person can obtain emergency medical assistance throughout most of
Australia. Ambulance service staffed by certified emergency medical technicians
is the standard throughout most of Australia. Medical evacuation (medevac) via
air may be necessary in remote areas as well as urban areas depending on the
nature of the injury. Find contact information for available medical services
and available air ambulance services on the U.S. Consulate website.
The following contact numbers may
also be of assistance.
Health Direct Australia – 1800 022
222 (for general medical advice)
Poisons Information Centre – 13 11
Air Ambulance Victoria operates
four ambulance airplanes and can reach most of Victoria within one hour. These
aircraft are mainly for transporting patients from rural towns to the major
hospitals in Melbourne. Air Ambulance Victoria operates five air ambulance
helicopters. The ambulance helicopters are an emergency response to critical
medical situations, providing an advanced level of care, quick attendance, and
fast transport to major hospitals.
Australia has a strong insurance
culture, with citizens typically buying home insurance, motor vehicle
insurance, and medical travel insurance. The primary body for the insurance
industry is the Insurance Council of Australia.
Australia’s Medicare system provides a subsidized health fund for Australian
citizens and residents. However, travelers are not covered. The U.S. Department
of State strongly recommends purchasing international health insurance before
traveling internationally. Review the State Departments webpage on insurance overseas.
Compulsory third-party insurance
may cover persons injured in a motor vehicle accident in some states of
Australia. This insurance covers compensation for injuries only, and does not
include damage to property or medical costs. If an accident involving an
unlicensed vehicle occurs, the driver and owner may be financially liable for
the damages paid to the injured person.
pollution is a significant problem during certain months in Australia due to
bush fires. Air quality varies considerably and fluctuates with the seasons. It
is typically at its worst in the bush fire season. People at the greatest risk
from particle pollution exposure include Infants, children, and teens; people
over 65 years of age; people with lung disease such as asthma and chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and
emphysema; people with heart disease or diabetes; and people who work or are
OSAC’s reports, The Healthy Way,
Traveling with Medication,
I’m Drinking What in My Water?,
Shaken: The Don’ts of Alcohol Abroad,
Health 101: How to
Prepare for Travel, and
Fire Safety Abroad.
The CDC offers additional information on vaccines and health guidance for Australia.
OSAC Country Council
U.S. Consulates in Perth and Sydney have active Country Councils. Interested
private-sector security managers should contact OSAC’s Asia-Pacific Team with
U.S. Consulate Contact Information
553 St Kilda Road, Melbourne
Monday to Friday: 0800-1700
(excluding Australian and U.S. holidays)
Consulate Operator: +61-(0)3-9526-5900
Other U.S. Diplomatic Posts in
- Embassy Canberra, Moonah Place, Canberra,
ACT 2600, +61-(0)2-6214-5600.
- Consulate Sydney,
Level 10, MLC Centre, 19-29 Martin Place, Sydney, NSW 2000, +61-(0)2-9373-9200.
- Consulate Perth, Level
4, 16 St Georges Terrace Perth, Western Australia 6000, +61-(0)8-6144-5100.
you travel, consider the following resources: