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Overseas Security Advisory Council
Bureau of Diplomatic Security
U.S. Department of State

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Botswana 2019 Crime & Safety Report

The current U.S. Department of State Travel Advisory at the date of this report’s publication assesses Botswana at Level 1, indicating travelers should exercise normal precautions.

Overall Crime and Safety Situation

The U.S. Embassy in Gaborone does not assume responsibility for the professional ability or integrity of the persons or firms appearing in this report. The American Citizens’ Services unit (ACS) cannot recommend a particular individual or location, and assumes no responsibility for the quality of service provided.

Review OSAC’s Botswana-specific page for original OSAC reporting, consular messages, and contact information, some of which may be available only to private-sector representatives with an OSAC password.

Crime Threats

There is considerable risk from crime in Gaborone. Criminal incidents, particularly crimes of opportunity (e.g. purse snatchings, smash-and-grabs from parked cars and in traffic, residential burglaries), can occur regardless of location. Theft of mobile phones, laptop computers, and other mobile devices are common. 

Criminals can be confrontational. Criminals often armed themselves with knives or blunt objects (e.g. tools, shovels, bats). Botswana has strict gun-control laws; however, criminals reportedly smuggle firearms from neighboring countries where weapons are inexpensive and readily available. A public awareness campaign highlights this issue and requests reporting of illegal firearms to the police. 

Reporting indicates incidents of both non-violent residential burglaries and violent home invasions. Incidents affect the local population, expatriates, and visitors alike. Robberies and burglaries tend to spike during the holiday seasons. Those living in Botswana, especially in major cities, should upgrade security at their residences to reduce vulnerability to home invasion. Intrusion alarms, electric fences, perimeter lighting, telephone/camera intercom systems, and window/door grilles are key components of a comprehensive, robust residential security program. 

Cybersecurity Issues

Use caution when logging onto public Wi-Fi. Avoid conducting personal or financial matters online using public servers. For more information, review OSAC’s report, Cybersecurity Basics.

Other Areas of Concern

Exercise caution near the Gaborone Dam and Kgale Hill areas during times when there are few hikers. Avoid Kgale Hill before sunrise and after sunset, peak times for criminal activity. 

Transportation-Safety Situation

For more information, review OSAC’s report, Security in Transit: Airplanes, Public Transport, and Overnights.

Road Safety and Road Conditions

Botswana is a left-side drive country. Authorities require a valid international driver’s license, along with vehicle registration documents, to drive in Botswana. Report traffic accidents to the Botswana Police Service.

Major roads are paved and in good condition, but some lack a substantial shoulder for emergency pull-offs. Most secondary roads are gravel or hard-packed earth. Vegetation can grow up to/over the edges of roads, particularly during the rainy season (November – March), causing a lack of visibility and concealing hazards at the side of the road. Intoxicated drivers and large numbers of pedestrians and hitchhikers in the roadways make fatal accidents a frequent occurrence, especially on weekends and end-of-month Friday paydays.

Driving can be challenging and sometimes dangerous. There are a high number of traffic accidents often due to poor driving habits, long stretches of two-lane highways (often without shoulders), excessive speeds, poor/non-existent street lighting, non-functioning traffic signals, and animals (e.g. cows, donkeys, goats) often found feeding alongside, crossing, or standing in the road. On some stretches of highway, drivers may also encounter elephants and other wildlife. Calves, foals, and young goats present a particular danger, as they are skittish and may suddenly rush onto the road.  Approach traffic lights with caution, as opposing traffic frequently continues well after a red light.

Alcohol and excessive speed are significant contributing factors in many accidents. The maximum speed limit outside of cities/towns is 120 kph (75 mph). 

Drive defensively, and keep your car doors locked and windows up. Thieves have repeatedly snatched valuables, including mobile phones in use, through open car windows. Carry a mobile phone and have emergency numbers pre-programmed. Talking and texting on a mobile phone while driving is illegal in Botswana. If you carry valuables in your car, keep them out of sight. Do not get out of your car if someone is trying to coax you out of your vehicle; leave the area. Be suspicious of anyone who tries to get your attention while you are in or near your car.

Due to road conditions and poor visibility, do not drive after dark outside of major cities. Use a GPS navigation system outfitted with the locations of police stations, hospitals, shops, and gas stations. However, when traveling long distances or to remote locations, always have an area map and consider bringing a satellite phone. Plan a trip so that you leave and arrive during daylight hours. Dusk and dawn are hazardous due to a low-setting sun and the contrast between a dark road/landscape and a bright sky. Livestock are particularly hard to spot at these times. 

For more information on self-driving, review OSAC’s reports, Driving Overseas: Best Practices and Best Practices for Road Safety in Africa.

Public Transportation Conditions

Buses, minivans, and taxis are popular means of transportation, as they are relatively inexpensive and plentiful. However, take care if you board a bus or minivan (combi). Many combis are overloaded and may not be roadworthy. Incidents of pickpocketing of foreigners in taxis have been reported, as has overcharging by taxi drivers. Make sure you have appropriate change ahead of time. If there is no meter, negotiate the fare ahead of time. All combis and licensed taxis should have a blue license plate. 

Scheduled coach bus service is available between Botswana and South Africa, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Zambia and is generally a safe mode of transport. Internal bus services, typically used by local citizens, link many towns and villages across Botswana.

Aviation/Airport Conditions

Travelers arriving in Botswana via South Africa should be aware of serious and continuing baggage pilferage problems at OR Tambo (Johannesburg, JHB) and Cape Town International Airports (CPT). Never place any high-value items or medicines in your checked baggage. Bring a small bag or backpack to transfer items if ground staff determines your carry-on suitcase is too large. There have been several incidents of items going missing after being gate-checked. Traditional suitcase locks are easily defeated. If you must place valuable items in checked baggage, have luggage plastic-wrapped. 

Other Travel Conditions

Ensure you have appropriate travel documents, to include a driver’s license, if renting a car. Carry medical evacuation (medevac) insurance and certified copies of unabridged birth certificates for children if traveling to/from South Africa. Authorities require additional certified forms for children traveling with only one parent; failure to have required forms can cause long delays or even denial of transit. 

Terrorism Threat

Local, Regional, and International Terrorism Threats/Concerns

There is minimal risk from terrorism in Gaborone. Indigenous terrorism is not a known issue in the country. However, terrorist threats know no boundaries. The Department of State remains concerned about the continued threat of terrorist attacks, demonstrations, and other violent actions against U.S. citizens and interests overseas. 

Political, Economic, Religious, and Ethnic Violence

There is minimal risk from civil unrest in Gaborone.

Post-specific Concerns

Environmental Hazards

The central and southern portions of Botswana are in a desert or semi-arid environment. Drought conditions have on occasion caused water and power outages.  

Critical Infrastructure

Power outages can leave areas without electricity for several hours, and may affect home security systems, garage doors and gates, and kitchen equipment. Power surges may harm computers, televisions, or other electrical appliances. In times of drought, the Water Utilities Corporation may ration water.

If you do not have roaming capability, it is worth unblocking your mobile phone so that you can buy a local SIM card. They are inexpensive, and network coverage is good on major routes and in most towns. Use a local number; rates are cheaper, and your number will display on the cell phone of the person you are calling, allowing them to reply. Satellite phones are useful when visiting remote areas beyond the range of normal mobile phones. For more information, review OSAC’s report, Satellite Phones: Critical or Contraband?

Personal Identity Concerns

The law does not explicitly criminalize consensual same-sex sexual acts, but it includes language criminalizing some aspects of same-sex sexual activity. What the law describes as “unnatural acts” is illegal, with penalties up to seven years’ imprisonment. There are no reports of police targeting persons suspected of same-sex sexual activity. There is stigma and discrimination against LGBTI persons particularly in villages and rural areas outside the capital. LGBTI travelers should exercise caution with regard public displays of affection.

The government mandates access to public buildings and transportation for persons with disabilities, but civil society sources report access for persons with disabilities is limited. Many privately owned buildings and business, and older government buildings remain inaccessible. The law does not specifically include air travel with other modes of transportation but in general, persons with disabilities receive access to air transportation.

Kidnapping Concerns

Kidnapping is of minimal concern in Botswana.

Police Response

The police are well intentioned and active in their efforts to prevent and combat crime. However, personnel and resource shortages limit operational effectiveness. Vehicle and foot patrols in residential and commercial areas are infrequent. Mobile response capability is limited. 

In response to shortfalls, there are community-policing programs in many neighborhoods. These have been effective at deterring criminals when they have the active support of private citizens.  

Keep some form of official identification on you in the event law enforcement officials stop or question you. Be respectful and courteous in your interaction. 

How to Handle Incidents of Police Detention or Harassment

If police cite you for a traffic violation, ensure they provide you with an official government receipt. 

Crime Victim Assistance

Report crimes to local police at 999 and to the U.S. Embassy.

U.S. Embassy Switchboard: +267-395-3982 (Business Hours) 

U.S. Embassy Marine Post One: +267-373-2222; 267-395-7111 (After Hours) 71-609-955 (cellular) 

U.S. Embassy Duty Officer: +267-71-754-585 (24/7) 

Police/Security Agencies

The Botswana Police Service is responsible for providing law enforcement service. The Botswana Police College outside of Gaborone hosts the U.S.-led International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA), a focal point for education and development for law enforcement agencies across Africa.

Police: 999 

Fire: 998 

Ambulance: 992 

Medical Emergencies

Adequately equipped private medical facilities, emergency rooms, and trained physicians are available in Gaborone for simple medical problems but services are rudimentary elsewhere. Gaborone has a number of large pharmacies that carry prescription medications. For more information, refer to OSAC’s report, Traveling with Medications.

Contact Information for Available Medical Services


  • Bokamoso Private Hospital: +267-369-4000 
  • Gaborone Private Hospital: +267-368-5600 
  • Princess Marina Hospital: +267-362-1400 


  • Maun Hospital: +267-687-9000 
  • Nyangabwe Hospital: +267-241-1000 


Available Air Ambulance Services

Professional private emergency rescue services operate air and ground ambulances throughout the country, but render care only after establishing a patient's ability to pay. You must join Okavango Air Rescue (Maun-based). The yearly membership fee is US$17. Applications are available online. Tel: 995; +267 6861616 

Medical Rescue International (MRI): 992; +267-390-1601 

Rescue One: 993; +267-392-3249; 71-282-634 

Emergency 991: 991; +267-74-692-400 

Insurance Guidance

Medevac to South Africa is expensive, and is often the only option for serious medical emergencies. For more information, refer to OSAC’s report, Medical Evacuation: A Primer.

Country-specific Vaccination and Health Guidance

Avoid drinking tap water and ice made from tap water. Many restaurants and hotels serve tap water unless you specifically request bottled water. Bottled water and beverages are generally safe to drink. For more information, refer to OSAC’s report, I’m Drinking What in My Water?

Malaria is prevalent in the north, particularly around the Chobe and Okavango National Parks. 

Tuberculosis is endemic. Individuals planning to be in Botswana for extended periods should obtain a tuberculosis skin test prior to arrival and upon departure. 

Approximately one-quarter of the population is infected with HIV. Exercise precautions if engaging in sexual activity or if exposed to a blood source other than that supplied by a hospital for transfusion purposes. 

The CDC offers additional information on vaccines and health guidance for Botswana

OSAC Country Council Information

The Country Council in Gaborone meets on a quarterly basis. Interested private-sector security managers should contact OSAC’s Africa team with any questions. 

U.S. Embassy Location and Contact Information

Embassy Address, Hours of Operation, and Contact Numbers

Embassy Drive, Government Enclave, Gaborone, Botswana

Hours of Operation: 0800-1700 Monday-Thursday; 0800-1330 Friday 

MSG Post One: +267-395-7111 267-373-2222 or 71-609-955 (cellular) 

U.S. Embassy Duty Officer: +267-71-754-585 

Website: https://bw.usembassy.gov/ 

Embassy Guidance

U.S. citizens traveling to Botswana should register with the Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP) to ensure they receive pertinent security updates and notices.

Additional Resource: Botswana Country Information Sheet 



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